This case study documents the deployment of biosand water filters to selected households in the Akugbene Community of the Bomadi Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. The Akugbene water filter project aims to increase access to clean drinking water, reduce instances of water-borne illnesses, as well as limit local environmental damage caused by the use of fuel wood.
Climate change, flooding, disease
The majority of the scientific community agrees that anthropogenic activities have significantly altered, and continue to alter, the earth’s climate conditions. Intensive use of fossil fuels results in the emission of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere, thus increasing the ambient temperature. This increase in temperature allows the atmosphere to become highly saturated with moisture, resulting in increased rainfall, and subsequent increased flooding.
Flooding is associated with numerous negative environmental impacts, as well as ramifications throughout society as a whole. Damage to native biota, farmland, animals, and the displacement of people, are among many devastating affects of flooding. However, climate change and flooding also have a significant impact on human health. Increased flooding and runoff due to heavy rainfall leads to a decrease in the quality of surface waters, and may lead to microbiological contamination. Prior studies depict connections between heavy precipitation and waterborne outbreaks of disease, such as cryptosporidiosis and cholera.
In addition to flooding, rising sea levels are another consequence of climate change that is responsible for the contamination of drinking water in the phreatic surface in coastal areas. Increased salinity levels in drinking water due to saltwater intrusion (even into boreholes)may negatively impact the health of those in the community, specifically high-risk groups such as women and children.